Updated British WWII Poster (click for original)

What To Pack It In

Choosing A Bag

To begin, recognize that getting a better bag won't make you a "one bag" traveller: a bag can reduce neither the amount nor the weight of stuff you bring with you. But once you have acquired more efficient travel skills (i.e., mastered the "packing moderation" and "weight reduction" elements), and abandoned the notion that you need to pull a small trailer behind you, you will find that an optimally-designed bag can make a dramatic difference in your travel comfort and convenience.

Finding one, however, means learning to see through a great deal of very deceptive marketing hype.

Critical aspects to consider include:

  1. Quality — because even non-checked luggage takes a beating, and quality delivers greater economy and reduced stress in the long run
  2. Capacity — because the purpose of luggage is to hold your belongings, and — perhaps surprisingly — not that many bags do a particularly good job of this
  3. Portability — because this is how mobility is achieved, and though it conflicts with "capacity", most people who learn to travel light find that everything they need to pack will fit easily into one carry-on-sized bag (fortunately, as in the real world there are two kinds of luggage: carry-on and "mishandled")

In addition to these basic concerns, there are many additional — and important — design considerations, including (in no particular order):

Truly wonderful bags are few and far between: luggage design — like the design of anything else — is an exercise in the complex art of compromise.all choices have consequences Each feature offered, and every benefit espoused, brings attending tradeoffs. And unfortunately, most of what you will find in luggage shops has been influenced far more by marketing departments than by the actual needs of travellers.

Naturally, the principal use of the bag also bears consideration. This ultimately leads to an understanding that there are really two different solutions, depending on whether your primary goal is business travel in urban locations, or leisure travel, exploring Europe (or wherever) on vacation (or whatever). I do plenty of both kinds, so use two types of bags; individual aspects of the two categories are addressed on the associated pages of this site, along with recommendations for both specific and multipurpose luggage solutions.

In both cases, however, you want a lightweight (not more than 4 pounds / 1.8kg) bag that's no larger than carry-on size (for most commercial aircraft, the rule-of-thumb is length + width + height = no more than 45 inches, about 114cm) with a non-rigid structure (which conforms better to both the bag's contents and the places you might stow it) and sturdy construction.

Good/Durable/Cheap … pick any two A helpful insight into luggage design can be had by considering the simple adaptation of a classic computer design adage shown at right [in the original, the second word is "fast"]. In other words, you can produce a bag that maximizes functionality/efficacy, or reliability, or low cost; in fact, you can perform well in any two of these categories, but not all three.

Fortunately (and unlike the case with computers), luggage can be a lifetime investment; a good bag doesn't become obsolete in five years. Consequently, the most intelligent designs will be those that focus on the first two elements, being both highly functional for their intended use, and able to last a lifetime. Such bags will not be the least expensive ones on the market, but they needn't be inordinately costly either, especially if purchased directly from the manufacturer instead of via a cost-multiplying network of distributors and local dealers. Should cost be the critical factor, however, the wise lightweight traveller (who rarely needs to check a bag) will choose good (i.e., lightweight/functional/efficient) over durable as the second most important factor.

Quality: Evaluating Luggage Components

Soft-sided luggage (constructed from modern, high-tech fabrics) is much to be preferred over the hard-shelled variety (fiberglass, metal, etc.). Hard bags are heavier and do not cope with the rigours of extended travel nearly as well as their more yielding counterparts; most importantly, they do not conform to available storage spaces (where the ability of a bag to "give" by even a fraction of an inch can often mean the difference between fitting in or otherwise).

The Walls

High-denier industrial nylon fabrics are the way to go: in top quality luggage, the main choices are ballistic and Cordura® nylon, differences between the two being largely cosmetic in nature. Ballistic is a filament yarn, thus smooth and slick, with a very synthetic appearance, which some consider a "high tech" look (and which doesn't dye easily, so is often sold only in black). It is also two-ply, which gives it a slightly "nubby" texture. And it is the heavier (by 5%) of the two fabrics: 1050 vs. 1000 denier (be aware that denier is a measurement of weight, not strength or durability).

Some bags use an Asian-made 1680 denier ballistic cloth that is of very mediocre quality (which is why it's half the price of the standard 1050 denier ballistic). It seems to be made of a very heavy single yarn, one consequence of which is that it wears quite badly, and looks pretty ratty after even limited usage. It's also 60% heavier than the good stuff. I would avoid luggage made from this material: it suggests that the manufacturer either favours low cost over quality, or has a poor understanding of fabrics.

Cordura is a texturized yarn, very slightly fuzzy (actually discontinuous in structure) like a natural fiber, with the feel of cotton canvas. It takes dye easily, thus can be reliably manufactured in various colours. Cordura is more abrasion resistant, while ballistic offers higher tear strength. In both fabrics, though, these capabilities are considerably greater than actually needed, so one is unlikely to experience a notable difference (but given the choice, I prefer abrasion resistance over tear strength in luggage). Cordura is also less susceptible than ballistic to fraying at cut edges, though modern coated fabrics make this less of a concern (also, the better manufacturers finish exposed internal edges).

Leather looks, feels, and even smells nice. It is, however, much heavier than contemporary luggage materials such as high-denier nylon. Also, when wet, it is quite susceptible to mould and mildew, and best avoided when travelling in the more humid parts of the world.

The Doors

chain vs. coil zippersThe most failure-prone components of a bag are its zippers (replacing broken zippers is by far the most common task at luggage repair facilities); consequently, they provide a good place to begin inspecting luggage for quality. There are two basic types: chain and coil (compare photos at left). Modern chain-type zipper teeth are made from injection moulded resins (such as polyacetal and polyethylene), fused directly onto the zipper tape; they are incredibly strong (thus much more durable), more resistant to dirt & sand, and more secure (see "Luggage and Security"). Coil zippers (the coil is made from extruded polyester and sewn onto the zipper tape) are less expensive and more flexible (thus easier/cheaper to install, which explains their preponderance on modern luggage).

Unwanted track separation is much less likely with chain zippers than the coil variety, but it can happen. Fortunately, it can be repaired in the field (with a little patience). Red Oxx's Jim Markel demonstrates how.

Three Magic Letters: Zippers may be ubiquitous, but they're far from simple, comprised of a surprising number (and complexity) of individual parts. Without question, the best ones (both chain and coil styles) are manufactured by the privately-held YKK Group (consisting of 80 companies, which collectively make every single component of the zipper); they have been doing so since 1934. The initials — which are also the brand, and usually found on the zipper pull — come from the original company name, Yoshida Kogyo Kabushikikaisha (roughly "Yoshida Company Limited").

If you have a zipper that is difficult to open or close, or that opens of its own accord, or comes off track easily, it's a good bet that it's not a YKK. In fact, the presence of YKK zippers is a quick way to identify better-made products of all kinds: you can be pretty certain that, when a manufacturer switches from YKK zippers to its own "house" brand, it is on a mission to cut costs, at the expense of quality.

And at the risk of stating the obvious, never use a zipper to force an overly-stuffed bag closed. Hold it closed yourself before pulling on the zipper. Better still, remove some of the contents.

One final observation in this regard: The people who best know the quality of any particular piece of luggage are those who built it. So seek out — and patronize — those companies that offer the best warranty policies (i.e., put their money where their marketing is). Make sure that you read the fine print and understand the policy details, though: a "lifetime warranty" rarely means what you might think it does!

Capacity: Vanishing Volume (The Curse of Curves)

Consider this: the most important attribute of a wristwatch — whether you prefer one that is slim and elegant, one that is easily read, or one that looks like a pressure gauge from a WWII submarine — is how well it keeps time. Yet when was the last time you saw an accuracy measurement in any watch advertisement?

Luggage is much the same. It is all too easy to divert attention — with questionable "features", high-tech fabric designations, and styling details — from the actual usable carrying capacity of the bag.

Why Rectilinear?To maximize carrying capacity, look for a rectilinear design (i.e., like a simple box, with straight, flat sides and 90° corners). For any given length + width + height, a rectilinear configuration yields the greatest internal volume; the moment you introduce curved sides or edges, you begin to lose storage space. (This is typically done to make a bag appear more aerodynamic, though it will have a negligible effect unless you plan to exit a flight while it's still airborne!)

Similarly, adding external pouches increases a bag's dimensions without adding appropriate corresponding storage volume.

The effects of both issues are clearly illustrated in the "Rectilinear" diagram. Although the two bags have identical external dimensions (as measured by the airlines), the rectilinear bag offers an astonishing 29% more storage space! Not an insignificant consideration.

missing feature: carrying capacity

The bag photo highlights — in red — this lost space for an actual (and fairly typical) leisure bag, albeit only from a single (and two-dimensional) viewing perspective: in the three dimensions of the real world, as much as a third or more storage capacity is wasted in this fashion.

This view also exposes three additional problems of non-rectilinearity. Extending a bag at its front (to the right in this photo) moves its centre of gravity further from one's body than it need be, making it less comfortable to carry. It also renders the bag more awkward to manoeuvre in crowded situations (as commonly experienced when using public transportation). Finally, those curved sides make it more difficult to pack effectively!

Here's yet another example: the traditional, cylindrical duffel bag is an iconic shape, wedded forever to our romantic notions of the sea. But such duffels were popular because they minimize seam length, making them cheap to manufacture. When it comes to storage volume and packing efficiency, however, they are a nightmare: difficult to pack well, and not very voluminous. A rectilinear duffel is much more commodious, more than 27% larger than its rounded counterpart with the identical length, width, & height!

Alternatively, consider this issue from the opposite perspective: for a desired amount of storage capacity, a plain, rectilinear bag is the smallest (L+W+H) one capable of providing it. There's a good reason why boxes are boxy!

The absolute maximum internal volume, of course, would be obtained with a perfectly cubic (L=W=H) bag. Such a shape, however, would be awkward to carry, and run afoul of many airlines' carry-on rules.

Portability: Just What is a Carry-On Bag?

cartoon by Graham Harrop (1994)This site is about learning to travel lightly, not about refusing to check bags (the carry-on emphasis stems from the observation that most people can live indefinitely out of a single bag of this particular size). Still, I always advise resisting the temptation to hand your belongings over to others, and enjoying the increased security, economy, mobility, and serenity that this will bring.

But remember, the goal isn't to see how much stuff you can carry aboard — it's learning to travel lightly, and happily. Fortunately, this can usually be accomplished with no more than will fit in a single bag of modest size.

So just what is — and what is not — permitted as aircraft carry-on baggage? And what is charged for and what isn't? To begin (and despite a lot of marketing blather that implies otherwise), there is no such thing as a "legal" carry-on limit: it's simply not an area of concern to legislative bodies. Each airline sets its own (often complex, and constantly changing) rules.

These limits are frequently based on weight, rather than (or in addition to) size, and can be more constraining than you might guess: quite a few airlines restrict carry-ons to 10kg (22 lbs), and 7kg (15 lbs) is very common for economy-class flights in Asia and Australia. Further, enforcement of these rules is generally at the whims of gate personnel, and dependent on their moods of the moment. And it's a continuously moving target; consequently, checking directly with the airline Web sites to confirm their ever-changing rules is always the wisest strategy (Netflights attempts to maintain links to the relevant pages). Also, heed my tips on Weight Watching when packing.

That said, I always encourage people to avoid — when possible — travelling with airlines that use unreasonable carry-on limits. Anything less than 10kg (22 lbs) is, in my view, an attempt to force passengers to check baggage. Check the current rules before buying that ticket!

I try to carry on, so I always take as little as I possibly can …

Jane F. Garvey
head of FAA, 1997–2002

The FAA's Advisory Circular 121-29 requires FAA-certified air carriers to have a detailed carry-on baggage program (though it neither suggests nor constrains the substance of such a program). This does, however, enable the airlines to (deceptively) cite FAA authority when refusing to allow oversized bags aboard flights.

The "45-inch rule" described above will satisfy most dimension-based regulations; this is the very largest bag size you should ever consider carrying, and smaller is much better. Soft-sided bags, especially those with external compression straps, are preferable, as you can cinch them down to minimal size once they've been packed. photo ©www.corbis.comAppearances count: someone with a modest bag dangling from one shoulder is much less likely to be weighed and measured than someone with a wheeled suitcase, hanging bag, and giant purse! In all cases, however, you should be prepared for the occasional demand that you check your bag, particularly on smaller aircraft with limited cabin storage (I discuss this further on the "Checking Bags" page). Once again, though, travelling light is not about figuring out how big a bag you can take; rather it's about determining the minimum amount of stuff you truly need to cart around with you, and then finding the smallest, best-designed bag that will comfortably hold it.

Why Not Make Additional Bag Recommendations?

Unsuitable for Travelling LightElsewhere on these pages, I discuss requirements for different types of travel, and recommend several specific bags. As a rule, I try to identify one or two "ideal" bags for each scenario, rather than a lengthy list of alternatives. Naturally, this leads to folks asking me about other bags that look intriguing (rarely a week goes by without some "perfect travel bag" being offered on Kickstarter or the like), or their particular favourites, or just more bags in general.

But OneBag.com is not a product evaluation site (as discussed here). Therefore, unless a manufacturer sends me a bag for review (and most of them avoid sites that might subject their products to a critical, impartial analysis), I can only do what anyone can: check specifications on the Web, and apply my understanding of what makes a good design. To further complicate things, many of the larger manufacturers (particularly "big name" ones, with wide distribution) change designs frequently and without notice, which makes them very difficult to recommend (as a "Model XYZ" can be a substantially different bag from one day to the next).

Instead, I attempt on OneBag.com to explain as much as possible about what constitutes good bag design (and address some design ideas that I consider misguided), so that people will be in a better position to evaluate bags on their own. Be assured that there are no free lunches (except for rare instances when a good bag goes out of production, and you can find it somewhere at a clearance price). Many bags are built using poorer quality materials and construction than those I recommend; this is what makes them less expensive. Quite a few current bags, for example, are made of the 1680 denier Asian fabric that I mention above (the only reason to use such an inferior fabric is because it is cheaper than good ones). Some bags are not very rectilinear, or (for leisure models) lack hip belts / suspension systems. As noted above, often a quick check of the warranty policy will tell you all you need to know.

Frankly, the vast majority of bags on the market are designed much more to make a profit than to improve your travel experiences.

Appreciate also that the focus of this site is on a very specific kind of travel: "travelling light, going pretty much anywhere, for an indefinite length of time, with no more than a single carry-on-sized bag." Consequently, I don't address bags for other travel styles; it's not that I disapprove of them, but rather that I can impart little of value concerning things with which I have limited experience.

All that said, once you get beyond the basics, the bag doesn't have that much of an effect on the ability to travel lightly. As long as you like its design, and it's not too heavy (more than 4 pounds / 1.8kg), it will likely suffice for your current travel needs. It may not last as long, or carry as comfortably, or hold as much, or be as organized, or have all the features of the bags I recommend, but by the time you come to fully appreciate that, you will have plenty of interesting travels under your belt, and be unlikely to feel that you wasted your money.

Actual travelling is much more rewarding than fretting over optimal bag design!

Some Closing Thoughts

Many of the very best products are simply not available at your local shopping mall. This is often because they are made by companies that eschew distribution networks and sales intermediaries — and the associated markups for both — in favour of higher quality manufacturing (and better warranties). Fortunately, the Internet has made the worldwide availability of such items much easier; remember that Google is your friend.

And in case you're thinking that USD$150–300 seems tlike a lot to pay for a bag, realize that, averaged over a lifetime of travel, it comes to less than a couple of cups of "designer" coffee per year! With just a little extra time spent exploring flight options, most people can save more than the cost of a decent bag on a single round-trip overseas airfare.

Finally, a lesson that is better not learned the hard way: don't set out on a (road or other) trip with luggage unsuitable for carry-on flying. You never know when your "best-laid plans" will go sideways, and you'll need to board a plane!